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  • Showing posts with label 5G Frame structure. Show all posts
    Showing posts with label 5G Frame structure. Show all posts

    SixG Introduction

    Joni Tyagi

    6G: Introduction

    6g introduction

    1. The Evolution of Wireless Connectivity

    First generation (1G):

    Mobile networks were designed for voice services with data rates of up to 2.4 kbit/s. Analog signals used to transmit information, and there was no universal wireless standard.

    Second generation (2G):

    Was based on digital modulation techniques and offered data rates of 50 Kbit/s to 384 Kbit/s, supporting not only voice services but also data services such as Short Message Service (SMS). The flagship 2G standard was the Global System for Mobile (GSM) communications.

    Third generation (3G):

    Mobile networks provided data rates of at least 2 Mbit/s and enabled advanced services including web browsing, TV streaming, and video services with data rates of up to 20 Mbit/s. To achieve global roaming, 3GPP was established to define technical specifications and mobile standards.

    Fourth generation (4G):

    Mobile networks were introduced in the late 2010s. 4G is an entirely Internet Protocol (IP) based network capable of providing high speed data rates of up to 1 Gbit/s in downlink and up to 500 Mbit/s in uplink to support advanced applications such as digital video broadcasting. DVB), high-definition TV content and video chat. LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) has been the dominant 4G standard, integrating technologies such as coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and reception, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM).

    Fifth generation (5G):

    Is to use not only the microwave band but also the millimeter-wave (mmWave) band for the first time to significantly increase data rates to 20 Gbit/s. Another feature of 5G is the more efficient use of spectrum, as measured by increasing the number of bits per Hz. ITU's International Mobile Telecommunications 2020 (IMT 2020) standard proposed the following three major 5G usage scenarios:

    1. Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), 
    2. Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications (URLLC),
    3. Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC). 
    As 5G is entering the commercial deployment phase, research has begun to focus on 6G mobile networks, which are estimated to be deployed by 2030 Typically, next-generation systems do not emerge out of a vacuum, but rather follow industrial and technological trends from previous generations. Potential research directions for 6G in line with these trends were provided by Bi (2019), which included, among others:

    2. What is 6G?

    6G, short for the sixth generation of wireless technology, is envisioned to provide even faster data speeds, lower latency, greater capacity, and support for advanced technologies such as artificial intelligence, virtual reality, augmented reality, and the Internet of Things (IoT). It may also include innovations such as terahertz frequency bands, massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) systems, and advanced antenna techniques to enhance network performance.
    ● 6G will continue to move to higher frequencies with wider system bandwidth: given that the spectrum at lower frequencies is nearly exhausted, the current trend is to increase the data rate by more than 10 times for each generation to achieve wider bandwidth at higher frequencies Is:
    Massive MIMO will remain a key technology for 6G: Massive MIMO has been the defining technology for 5G which has enabled the antenna count to increase from 2 to 64. Given that performance gains have saturated in the areas of the channel coder and modulator, spectral efficiency increases for 6G in the multiple antenna area will continue to be expected. MIMO Interview Questions Answers.
    6G will take cloud service to the next level: With consistently higher data rates, lower latency, and lower transmission costs, many computational and storage functions have been moved from smartphones to the cloud. As a result, most of a smartphone's computational power can be focused on presentation rendering, making VR, AR or XR more efficient and affordable. Many Artificial Intelligence (AI) services that are intrinsically cloud based can be more easily and widely proliferated. In addition to smartphones, low-cost functional terminals may once again flourish, providing opportunities for development in more application areas.
    Grant-free broadcasts may become more prominent in 6G: In previous cellular network generations, broadcasts were primarily based on grant-oriented designs with strong centralized system control. 6G will require more advanced grant-free protocols and approaches. It is possible that non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technology may have another chance to prevail due to its low-latency performance, even if it fails to take off during the 5G time period.
    MMTC is more likely to take shape in the older generation before succeeding in the next generation: MMTC has been one of the major directions for next-generation system design since the growth of the people-to-people communication market. High hopes are pinned on 5G MMTC to deliver significant growth for the cellular industry. However, so far, this expectation has been mismatched with reality.

    3. The Vision for 6G

    The vision for 6G is nothing short of revolutionary. It promises data transfer rates that are several times faster than 5G, potentially reaching terabits per second. This massive increase in speed will enable real-time applications, augmented reality experiences, and seamless connectivity on a scale we've never seen before.

    4. Key Features of 6G Technology

    a. Terahertz Frequencies

    One of the defining features of 6G is its utilization of terahertz frequencies. These extremely high-frequency bands will allow for more data to be transmitted at a faster rate, paving the way for lightning-fast downloads and ultra-responsive networks.

    b. AI Integration

    6G will integrate artificial intelligence (AI) in its infrastructure to optimize network management, enhance security protocols, and adapt to user behavior in real-time. AI-driven networks will be capable of self-optimization, ensuring a seamless and efficient user experience.

    c. Holographic Communication

    Imagine being able to communicate with a life-like hologram of a loved one from across the globe. 6G aims to make this a reality by enabling high-definition holographic communication, transcending physical boundaries and bringing people closer together.

    d. Quantum Communication

    6G is set to explore the potential of quantum communication, which offers unparalleled levels of security and privacy. By harnessing the principles of quantum mechanics, 6G networks can ensure that data transmission remains impervious to hacking or interception.

    5. Impact on Industries and Society

    a. Healthcare

    In the field of healthcare, 6G's ultra-reliable and low-latency connectivity will enable remote surgeries, empowering surgeons to operate on patients located miles away. Additionally, real-time health monitoring and diagnostics will become more accessible, leading to improved patient care.

    b. Transportation

    Autonomous vehicles will greatly benefit from 6G's lightning-fast response times and real-time data exchange. This technology will revolutionize transportation by enhancing safety, reducing congestion, and enabling vehicles to communicate seamlessly with each other and the surrounding infrastructure.

    c. Entertainment and Gaming

    6G's high-speed data transfer will revolutionize the entertainment and gaming industries. Users can expect lag-free streaming, immersive virtual reality experiences, and online gaming at levels of realism never seen before.

    d. Education

    In the realm of education, 6G will pave the way for enhanced remote learning experiences. Interactive virtual classrooms, augmented reality textbooks, and collaborative learning platforms will become the norm, offering students from diverse backgrounds access to quality education.

    6. Challenges and Considerations

    Despite the promising future of 6G, several challenges need to be addressed before its widespread adoption. Some of these challenges include:

    a. Infrastructure Development

    To realize the full potential of 6G, a robust and extensive infrastructure must be put in place. This includes the deployment of base stations, antennas, and fiber-optic networks to support the increased data demands.

    b. Spectrum Allocation

    As 6G incorporates terahertz frequencies, careful spectrum allocation is essential. These high-frequency bands have limited range and can be affected by environmental factors, requiring strategic planning to ensure consistent coverage.

    c. Security and Privacy Concerns

    With increased connectivity and AI integration, security and privacy become critical concerns. 6G networks must implement robust encryption and authentication mechanisms to protect user data and thwart potential cyber threats.

    7. The Road to 6G

    While 6G technology is still in its infancy, researchers, technology companies, and governments worldwide are already investing heavily in its development. Collaborative efforts and innovation will pave the way for 6G's eventual commercialization and integration into our daily lives.

    Want to Become expert in LTE and 5G go through with below Practice Questions Answers Links:


    Jitendra Kumar


    When Interference occurs between two symbols because of straight path and reflected path it’s called ISI.



    (1) Rake Receiver:

    It’s a Multi Finger antenna which is capable for receiving and separating multi directional waves.
    ·         No ISI any more.
    ·         Due to Multipath reception diversity increases the signal decoding success rate.
    ·         Expensive due to use of Rake receiver
    ·         High Power consumption required for multi signal processing.


    ·         Delay Time: If delay time increase than ISI will increase and vice versa.
    ·         Bandwidth: If Bandwidth increase than ISI will increase and vice versa.


    (1) Sub Carrier Techniques:

    In this techniques each sub-carrier size should be 15 kHz Bandwidth because if lower the bandwidth so ISI also less.
    LTE Sub-carrier: Scalable Bandwidth in below table:
     LTE Cyclic Prefix Method:
    Add a waste piece at a start of a symbol so that it can absorb the shock of the impact.
    ·         Short CP: 14000 symbols per second per sub carrier and remaining 1000 symbols are used as a cyclic prefix.
    ·         Long CP: 12000 Symbols per second per sub-carrier.

    5G NR Frame Structure

    Joni Tyagi

    5G/NR Frame Structure

    There have been lengthy discussions on frame structure both  in academia and in 3GPP and now we have pretty clear agreements on what a NR (5G) radio body would appearance, like In this page I will describe on NR Frame Structure that is laid out in 3GPP specifications. If you're interested in the ones lengthy discussions and histories about show those specification came out for your personal attraction and study.

    5G/NR Numerology and Sub-Carrier Spacing:   

    Numerology: corresponds to one sub carrier spacing inside the frequency domain. By go up a reference sub carrier spacing by an integer N, special numerology may be defined.
    The numerology is based on exponentially scalable sub-service (sub-carrier spacing) Δf = 2μ × 15 kHz with μ=0, 1, 3, 4 for Primary Synchronize Signal, Secondary Synchronize Signal & PBCH and μ=0, 1, 2, 3 for other channels. Normal CP is supported for all sub-service (sub-carrier) spacing, Extended CP is
    Supported for μ=2. 12 consecutive sub-carriers shape a Physical Resource Block (PRB). Up to 275 PRBs are supported on a provider.

    5G/NR Frame Structure Numerology and Sub-Carrier Spacing

    Frame and Subframe length:

    In 5G/NR Downlink and uplink transmissions are organized into Radio frames with 10 ms length, together with ten 1 ms sub frames. Each radio frame is divided into two equally-sized half-radio frames of 5 sub frames each. The slot duration is 14 symbols with Normal Cyclic Prefix and 12 symbols with Extended Cyclic Prefix, and scales in time as a function of the used sub-carrier spacing so that there is continually an integer no. of slots in a sub frame.

    5G Numerology and Sub-Carrier Spacing

    Supportive transmission numerologies:

    Every numerology can't be used for every physical channel and signals. That is, there is a specific numerologies which are used simplest for a certain kind of physical channels despite the fact that majority of the numerologies may be used any kind of physical channels. Following table is shows which numerology can be used for which physical channel.

    NR Numerology and Sub-Carrier Spacing

    5G/NR OFDM Symbol Duration:  

    As you know that there are multiple numerologies are using in 5G/NR. So the ofdm symbol durations also are changed as per numerology use in physical layer. For e.g. if Numerology 0 is use the ofdm symbol duration is 66.67µs. But if Numerology 4 is use then the ofdm symbol duration is decrease and it would be 4.17µs. please go through with below table for more clarity.

    5g ofdm symbol duration

    5G/NR Numerology Sampling Time:  

    if we take an example of 15Khz sub-carrier  the sampling rate will be Nf=2048. And sampling time is Tc=32.6ns. or if we take an example of 480Khz sub-carrier  the sampling rate will be Nf=4096. And sampling time is Tc=0.509ns.

    5G/NR Numerology Sampling Time

    5G/NR Radio Frame Structure:

    [Normal Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=0]:  In this configuration, a sub-frame has one (1) slot, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 10 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 14.

    5G NR Radio Frame Structure

    5g Numerology complete info

    [Normal Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=1]:  

    In this configuration, a sub-frame has two (2) slots, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 20 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 14.
    nr Numerology complete info

    5g normal cyclic prefix

    [Normal Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=2]:  

    In this configuration, a sub-frame has four (4) slots, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 40 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 14.

    5g normal cyclic prefix

    5g normal cyclic prefix

    [Normal Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=3]:  

    In this configuration, a sub frame has Eight (8) slots, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 80 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 14.

    5g normal cyclic prefix

    5g normal cyclic prefix

    [Normal Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=4]:  

    In this configuration, a sub frame has Sixteen (16) slots, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 160 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 14.

    [Extended Cyclic Prefix, Numerology=2]: 

    In this configuration, a sub frame has four (4) slots, it means a radio frame [RF] consists of 40 slots in it. The numbers of OFDM symbols present in a slot is 12.

    Extended Cyclic Prefix

    Extended Cyclic Prefix